LI B RARY
U N IVER_SITY
Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations
NIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
EDITORIAL NOTE This University of Illinois Bulletin is the
second of three to be published by the Insti-
tute of Labor and Industrial Relations on
Industrial Engineering topics. The topics are
Job Evaluation, Motion and Time Study,
and Wage Incentives. These Bulletins are not
intended to "promote" the use of these tech-
niques, but to aid managements and unions
which have decided to adopt them.
The Institute of Labor and Industrial
Relations was established at the University of
Illinois in 1946 to "inquire faithfully, hon-
estly, and impartially into labor-management
problems of all types, and secure the facts
which will lay the foundation for future
progress in the whole field of labor relations."
The Bulletin series is designed to carry
out these aims by presenting information and
ideas on subjects of interest to persons active
in the field of labor-management relations.
These Bulletins are nontechnical, for general
and popular use.
Additional copies of this Bulletin and
others are available for distribution.
ROBBEN W. FLEMING, BARBARA D. DEN.NIS,
I.L.I.R. BULLETIN NO. 24
(The number 24 represents the total number of 6u//etins
published by the Institute of Labor and Industrial Re-
lations to date. This series was originally called Series A
and later I.L.I.R. Publications, Bulletin Series, with Vol-
ume and Number. Hereafter I.L.I.R. 6u//etins will be
published at irregular intervals and will be numbered
consecutively. I.L.I.R. Publications, Bulletin Series, Vol. 6,
No. 1, Workers on fhe Move, published in September,
1952, is the Bu//ef/n in this series immediately preceding
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS BULLETIN
\'alume 51, Number 73: June, 1954. Published seven
times each month by the University of Illinois. Entered as
second-class matter December 11, 1912. at the post office at
Urbana. Illinois, under the Act of August 24. 1912. Office
of Publication. 2(17 .Administration Building. Urbana, Illinois.
Motion and Time Study
L. C. PIGAGE
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Labor and Indusfriol
J. L. TUCKER
Chief Industrial Engineer, CofTing Hoist Company. Former Instructor of
Mechanical Engineering in Labor and Industrial Relations and Extension
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Why Have Motion and Time Study? 9
Motion and Time Study in the Wage Structure 10
Motion Study 11
Process Chart 12
Flow Chart 18
Operation Chart 18
Micromotion (Simo) Chart 22
Time Study 23
Approaching the Employee and Job to Be Time-Studied . 23
Determining the Job Content 24
Determining the Elements of the Job 26
Recording the Actual Time Values 27
Determining the Average Time to Do the Job
by a Certain Operator 34
Determining the Base Time for the Job
by Rating or Leveling 36
Determining and Applying Allowances 37
Applying the Standard as Determined
by the Time Study 40
Selected Bibliography 45
To mention motion and time study to a group of workers, or to a
group of management representatives, is a eertain way to start an
Even with a history of some 50 years, many points are still debated.
Time study was first used by Frederick W. Taylor while he was working
at the Midvale Steel Company in the 1890's. At about the same time
Frank B. Gilbreth applied motion study to bricklaying as a means of
improving his contracting business.
Perhaps some day agreement may be reached on a scientific procedure
to follow in motion and time study. But at the present time we can only
suggest some general methods which can be modified to fit a situation
Human judgment has always been a strong factor to be overcome in
attempting to remove the difficulties that surround this subject. The
people in the shop, particularly those who are organized into unions, are
suspicious of motion and time study. They are especially critical of the
rating phase of time study — which has not been too satisfactory in many
Motion and time study affects the way a man works and how much
he gets for his work. These things are vital to him. He finds it difficult to
accept any change without understanding the reason for it. In most cases,
motion and time study is not fully understood by those not actually
trained to work with the technique. Often the lack of understanding and
the misapplication of motion and time study are responsible for much of
This Bulletin is written to explain methods used in motion and time
study, to suggest an approach to its many problems, and to assist in
developing a working program in the field.
Why Have Motion and Time Study?
Managements of manufacturing concerns feel that economy of effort
and cost are extremely important factors in the operation of a plant.
In many cases they use motion and time study as one of the techniques
to achieve this economy. In addition, they give serious consideration to
the effect of production economy on the buying public. They try to set
the selling price of a product at a level the customer is willing and able
to pay. Frequently, if the product is a good one, well known, and sold
at a reasonable price, a manufacturer may gain a leading position in the
field. Thus he is able to maintain good profits and security.
In order to price a product, most manufacturers try to determine and
lower three major cost factors — material, overhead, and labor. Motion
and time study has dealt mainly with labor costs. Yet it is affected by
many complex variables such as the understanding of the whole field of
motivation. It is this technical treatment of the subject, without due
regard for the human being, which has caused many motion and time
study systems to get into untenable positions in industry.
For example, Jim and Ed are two workers. Each does exactly the
same work, and each is apparently trying to do a good job. Yet, upon
closer examination, it is found that Jim produces quite a bit more than
Ed — even though Ed appears to be working harder than Jim. This
situation isn't serious enough to create an immediate price emergency
for the company, but it does warrant an investigation to find out why
Ed doesn't produce as much as Jim. Perhaps there is some way to find
out exactly what Jim does that enables him to produce so well. If the
"know-how" that Jim possesses can be divided into sini]jlc steps and
explained clearly to Ed, and to the other Eds in the plant, their jobs will
become easier to perform and will cause fewer headaches for everyone.
Here motion study comes into the picture. Through the use of motion
study, the job can be broken down into steps, and each step can be
analyzed to see if it is being done in the simplest, easiest, and safest
possible manner. Jim probably knows a few short-cuts that help him do
his job in less time and with less effort. By using motion study, it will be
possible to find out just what these are.
At this point Ed can be helped by motion study. The job has been
broken down into simple steps that are easy to explain, easy to under-
stand, and easy to follow. Now he will be able to realize some good pro-
duction results and get these results with less effort than he used before.
Time study is the recording of the time needed to do a certain
amount of work in a certain way. It is tied in directly with the specific
method of doing the work and is good only for that method. The use of
time study permits the company to complete the picture of labor cost
and also provides a fixed base so the worker will know what is expected
of him during a certain period of time.
What does this mean to the company, and eventually to Jim and Ed?
It means that the company can constantly improve its position in the
competitive market and can maintain a good profit margin. This may
result in more benefits for Jim and Ed — greater job security and higher
wages. Moreover, their work will be easier.
Motion and Time Study in the Wage Structure
In the technical sense, motion and time study can be placed between
the job evaluation system and the specific wage incentive plan used in
the company. The motion and time study program establishes the
minimum expected rate of production on each job to which it is applied
for the base money rate being paid for that job. (The base money rate
for the job may change from time to time due to changing economic
conditions and social outlooks, but the time standard should remain the
same as long as the method of doing the job is not changed.)
Furthermore, motion and time study programs set the basis for wage
incentive systems. Through the use of motion and time study, the unit base
of measure for extra pay for extra production above the acceptable mini-
mum is established. (This whole relationship is more fully explained in Job
Evaluation, a Bulletin previously published by the University of Illinois.)
Motion and time study is not scientific throughout. The techniques
do attempt to follow a scientific procedure, but there is room for con-
siderable inipro\ement. To achieve rational and reasonable results it is
essential to use motion and time study together to determine a production
standard. It is particularly important that reasonable effort be applied
in motion study to insure equitable results when time study is used. In
tact, much c^t the diflficulty with time study, aside from lack of scientific
procedure, is a result of applying it without a thorough study of the
motion pattern of the job.
Basically, motion study is the foundation for time study. The time
study determines the time to do the job according to a certain method
and is valid only so long as the method is continued. Once a new way to
do the job is developed, the time study must be changed to agree with
the new method. Otherwise the time allowed for the job would be too
great, and a loose standard would result. This, in turn, would mean
inconsistent standards or unequal opportunity for all persons on incentive
work to earn essentially equal bonuses.
Motion study can be used successfully without time study — but time
study cannot be used without motion study. Since motion study is the
foundation for time study and should be done before a time study is
made, this Bulletin will consider motion study techniques first.
The purpose of motion study should be to find the greatest economy
of effort with due regard for safety and the human aspect. The total
cost lor human expenditure of effort can be reduced at the same time
that the unit cost for human eflfort is increased. The same amount of
work can be accomplished in less time with more efficient application of
human effort which will justify higher hourly wage rates.
Any job can be motion-studied. The achievement of reduced human
effort may be harder to secure on some jobs than on others, but this is
no excuse for not applying motion study in many places other than on
factory jobs. In fact, motion study can be applied very effectively to jobs
in the home, in the oflfice, in retail and distribution fields, and in many
Stated simply, motion study means —
1 . Find out how a job is being done now.
2. Thoroughly question the reason for each step as it is being done
now on the job.
3. Remove the steps on the job which cannot be fully justified.
UNivERsmr OF nnmni
4. Install and standardize the new procedure for doing the job.
The job study may be simple or elaborate — depending on the desires
of those making the study and the people on the job. The amount of
time and money to be spent may limit the scope of the study.
The ideas as outlined in the following pages will give a fair concept
of some of the possible motion study techniques which can be used.
These samples of techniques, simply illustrated, with supporting pro-
cedures, will give the reader an idea of relatively uniform practices now
prevailing. No attempt is made to cover all the possible variations that
The usual and tested procedures in motion study involve the use of ■ —
1. Process charts. The study of a series of steps in making an article
or the series of events a person goes through in completing a job
2. Flow charts. A supporting route of travel that an article or person
may take in completing a series of steps in a job assignment. This chart
is usually used to supplement the process chart.
3. Operations charts. A detailed analysis of just what an employee
does in a specific step or task.
4. Micromotion (simo) charts. An elaborate breakdown of an opera-
tion chart into very fine motion patterns, showing what the employee
does in a specific step or task.
The above is the accepted order of study of processes and jobs. Not all
are necessary, but usually the process, flow, and operation charts are
made. This Bulletin will consider, in turn, each type of chart in the
motion study procedure. But a person with a sheet of ordinary paper and
a pencil can achieve equally good results — even though specific forms
are shown in the subsequent illustrations.
Before one studies each and every step in a series used to complete
an article or product, it is well to take a look at the over-all picture.
This means that all the steps should be considered in relation to each
other. The idea of this over-all view is to decide —
1. Are all the %teps now used to complete the product or task
2. Are the various steps done in the proper order?
3. Is there waste of time and cfTort between the various "do" parts
of the series of steps?
To study the over-all situation, one usually makes a process chart
and a flow diagram. On the process chart, all the various steps involved
in furthering the product from raw material to final finish(>d form are
listed in the order in which they now exist. It is essential that each and
e\-ery phase of the series of steps in the over-all picture be shown. No
assumptions should be made. Above all, it is highly desirable to observe
the series of events on the actual scene instead of trying to picture what
is taking place from a distant office.
As an illustration of a process chart, consider the simple series of
events encountered in preparing a bottled soda to drink. I'his might
occur in any home, and the illustration was purposely selected so that
the reader might duplicate the process chart in his own home. Note that
every step in the series is shown, regardless of the extent of the step.
Furthermore, this chart was made by actually observing a person per-
forming the job sequence. See Figure I.
It can be seen from this process chart that, along with the general
identification material and summary, there are three detail parts to the
body of the chart. These are (1) description of the step, (2) symbol,
and (3) distance involved. A fourth detail, the time for each step, could
be listed and often is.
The symbols used may look somewhat queer, but, with usage, one
will soon discover that they assist in spotting features about a series of
steps which will lead to simplifying the process. The symbols used in this
and anv chart are —
an operation, a step which progresses the product through
change in shape, etc., along to completion.
O — a move operation, a transportation from one location to an-
other, but not involving a change in shape of the product nor
progressing the product along to completion.
Nat/ — a temporary storage, a waiting of the article or product for the
^ next event to happen.
a permanent storage, a waiting of the article or product for
the next event to happen. This differs from temporary storage
in that an order is reciuired before the next event can take
an inspection of a quality nature.
rn — an inspection of a quantity nature.
Now, returning to the illustrated process chart (Figure I), note
several features that would and should be questioned. There are ( 1 ) sev-
eral moves involving considerable distance to secure thi' finished product
and (2) several operations which may be readily simplified. I'he extent
of a change depends upon the costs one may be able to undertake. Siin]jlc
changes usually can be made without actual — or with minor — money
outlay. In this case, one-third of the distance traveled could be saved by
relocating the refrigerator and bottle opener. (This is particularly evident
when one looks at the flow chart. Figure II.)
Pfnra^^ ~Preoare boltlect he.\iera<^ff -fodrinWi
pppt<; Hoir>g Ports 5gda,Bc<"r i^ertf tor,QpgnerPart No's. N>Qng
Charted by J^Wn Dna Date Ant^ 4-1 wg ,
V/ R«e^ om 4ofa
(^ St^awd up
Walk, to nyfrigerotor
(^ Opffi refrigerator <Joor
C^ Cast bottle of berenage
CJ Closff r«fr>q« rotor door
Wallc to opener Con U3a\l)
Q Open bottlff
Walk to boall cabinet
C^ (Set tf glass
Walt to sink
([p Pour beveraq<£> into qloss
Q 5e^ bottle aside in sint
Walk to sofa
CP Sit dou>n
\7 Kcst on sofa.
ofmovemenits 99 ft-
Prnrpss T'lou> diagram- Prvparv bottlxl b«v#rag# fo dnwh,
pppts Hotv^tf pprfs Soaa.gafri^cator. Opwer pg^f Nf^'a Hon*
Charted by JoHn ppg
nnto Ant) flm*
Scale- each squore.£il.
Prnrpo; P^apore bottted b«v»raqe fa driwb
P>ptg Home Ports ^°*'<'- <'^'^'<»«'-at«r, Qpimr pgrt No's. -5i5!5S___
Chorted by Jon Po«
Date ^°^*^ • <"*«
^ Re«t on safoi
^ Stand up
Walk, to uuill cabinet
Q Get glas6
Walk to refrigerator
Q) Open refrigerator door
C^ <a»t boM-le of bti^erage
^) Close reFrigerafor door
Walk +o opCAtr (an side of base cabinet^
Q Open bottle
Walk to aink.
^P Pour berera^e into glasd
C^ Set bottle Qfide in sink.
Walk to »ofa
CP Sit down
\/ Ee»t on sofa.
Imf roK^a M<rtha<l Original M«tti»d Sntnuja
9 9 -
S s -
Distance of mo\/emen\s
69 ft. 99 ft. 3oft.
2 2 -
Process P'lom diagram - Pfeparo bottlgd bevaragtf to dnwte.
ngpts. Home Porfs Sodo. Rgfn<}iratar,Opentfr p^y| Np's **on»
Charted by ^O"^ Pog
Scale- each square2_ff_
These simple changes resuhcd in the improved process chart shown
in Figure III and the corresponding improved flow chart shown in
Figure IV. Further changes in equipment could have resulted in even
more saving of time and eff"ort, but some money would have to be spent
for these improvements.
This chart, as seen in Figure II, is really a "road map" of the series
of events. It brings out more clearly the extent of the moving-around
involved even in this simple illustration. The general practice is to have
a flow chart accompany every process chart. The flow chart is drawn to
any convenient scale.
Even though no operations were eliminated in the improved process
and flow charts illustrated, there are many cases where they could be.
Because some operations can be eliminated or combined with others, an
individual operation study should follow an over-all (process chart)
study. In this way, time will not be wasted studying or retaining an
unnecessary series of events.
Each operation should be studied to find —
1. What the operator does in accomplishing the task.
2. Why the operator does each part in accomplishing the task.
3. What is not absolutely necessary to accomplish the task so that a
more eff^ective use of effort can be suggested.
It does not take much time and energy to discover that many parts of
a job involve the use of human effort to accomplish little or nothing —
except that the worker gets tired. This does not imply an insult to the
many skilled operators of today. It is simply that parts of many jobs, and
in some cases whole jobs, "just grew up like Topsy" without sufficient
thought as to why they are done as they are. In fact, some people on the
job or very close to the job do not realize just how much eflfort is wasted
until they stop and take stock of what is being done.
Furthermore — and this is important — many operators on the same
job and production-standard-time-allowed will produce at diff"erent rates
because of the difTerent methods they use rather than because of how fast
they work. This is especially true when the operators are left more or
less on their own to develop their own methods on the job. This idea
was suggested in the introductory pages of this Bulletin. The operator is
placed in a very difficult position when he is given the production-
standard-time-allowed without the specific method. He has to stumble
on thf proper or better method to meet the time standard while still
working at a reasonable paee.
Various means ean be used to seeure the information as to what an
operator does to accomplish a task, but the most satisfactory has been a
1 . For a single operator — one column shows what the left hand is
doing- and thi^ other colunm shows what the right hand is doing at the
same time throughout the task. See Figure V. (Additional colunms may
be used to show foot lever operations, etc.)
2. For an operator and a helper — one column shows what the
operator is doing and the other shows what the helper is doing at the
3. For an operator and a machine — one column shows what the
operator is doing and the other shows what the machine is doing at the
4. Various combinations of the above three situations.
Turning to specifics and looking at Figure V, the reader can see what
the operator actually was doing when he was straightening a welded "T"
bracket. This particular method does not reflect on his intelligence. He
was trying to get the task accomplished. But the reader will note that
several times throughout the accomplishment of the task, one hand or
the other was idle. Also, the operator spent a lot of time handling thi'
work without actually straightening the bracket. The motion study
engineer did not intend to overwork the operator in correcting these
conditions, but aimed to help him use his eflfort more constructively.
With these thoughts in mind, a simple straightening block was con-
structed. This block retained the bracket in proper position for the
straightening operation. Now an analysis of what the operator does
reveals eflfective use of both hands. See Figure VI.
These operation charts not only serve as a means to simplify an oper-
ation, but —
1 . They are excellent instruction guides to train new operators
2. I'hey are sound bases for the method being emplo\ed when the
time study is made.
3. They are highly useful when grievances on production standards or
changes in production arise.
Although further improvements could be realized through the use of
a special arbor prc-ss in the specific task illustrated, it can he seen that
inuch can be accomplished in operation analysis without excessive ex-
penditure of money. Above all, human endeavor can be directed to ac-
complishing the task more efTectively.
Scale -each square akgf^ ^^*-
Page 1 of ±-
Dpprntinn ^^''Q'q^^'^'^ Welded "T' Brac ket
Specif. No. '^°"g
_ Part No. 'O'^o
■ Mach.No. '^""g -
. Draw. No. Hone-
Operator a No. Ll. Pott pixt. No. '^""g
Charted by ^°'» Po^
Reach for part 9
j7 Wait for left hand
Qrasp part O
Carry to i/isc V
Reach for vise handle
Position in viae Q)
) (a rasp handle
Hold for tightening vise W
Q Tighten vise
Relaase part C
Q Release handle
o Reach for hammer
O Grasp hammer-
O Carrij hammer to fisa
O Hit part to straighten
o Carrjj hanomer aside
Q Release hammer
Reach for part <
9 Reac\n tor vise handle
Caraap part C
Q) <3rasp vice handle
Hold part ^
Q Open vise
Remove part frow vise ^)
Q) Release »/ise handle
Car-rij part to \ai/e\ block <^
Sight part for 3trai<jW»i«S5 O
Asidff part ^
Release part O |
Y OperatioirtS 9
5 Mot^enients 5
3 Holds ft delays 2
bar r"^ '*>fot-^ . ■
. . . J^Optraior ■ ■ ■
Scale -each square -g^g"^ ' ^*
nnprntinn Straightgn Weld<?d "T" Brack et
Operation No. i^
Specif. No. H<"^g
Operator a No. J=LO«ii
Charted by ^°'^ P°e
-Port No. 'O^o
. Mach. No. ^o'nf
. Draw. No. f*one
_ Fixt. No. Sioi
Raoch for part <y
9 Reacts for hammer
Qrasp part (p
O Grasp hammer
Carrtj part to block. V
<f Carri^ hammer H> blocb
Position part in hole in bloct O
Release part O
Q Strike part
l^eacVi for qoqs bar Q
i Aside hammer
Qragp qa^e har- O
^ Release Hammer
Corri^ qaqe bar to part 9
i Rffach for parf
Ga^e part for strai^htness O
Q (jrasp part
A.9ide gage bar 9
o Aside part
Release goge bar O
O Release part
<o OparaVions 5
1 6 Operations
5 Mo</fftn<rntj S
- Holds «i Dvloi^ 1
5 Holds Cc Oelaijs
MICROMOTION (SIMO) CHART
In some cases it is found that a more detailed investigation is needed.
The technique employed for detailed analysis is called micromotion study
and the chart used is a micromotion or simo chart. Frank B. and Dr.
Lillian Gilbreth, who originally developed this method of motion study,
found that all work could be broken down into 17 basic body motions.
These basic motions were called "therbligs" ( a form of Gilbreth in reverse )
and are still known by that name. All jobs involve various combinations
of these basic motions, and their interrelationships play a very important
part in the analysis of jobs which are short in duration and rapid in per-
formance. In fact, micromotion study technique is favored over other
motion study methods because it can measure rapid jobs more efTectively.
Because these motions are small and difficult to record, the Gilbreths
also developed the use of a motion picture camera and a timing device
for studying and measuring the basic motion patterns involved in doing
work. Micromotion study is not too widely used at the present time be-
cause many work improvements can be realized with the more simple
forms of analysis. A micromotion study program is costly, and this also
limits its use by many organizations.
Before rejecting micromotion study because of cost, serious considera-
tion should be given to its many advantages. In long range planning, the
detailed analysis may be well worth the investment. Son:ie of the advan-
tages are that micromotion study —
1. Provides more detail than other methods of observation.
2. Is more accurate than other methods.
3. Is more convenient than other methods.
a. The work can be studied at leisure from a film.
b. The film can be stopped at any place in the cycle and restudicd.
4. Provides automatic timing.
5. Provides a permanent record free of errors.
6. Is useful in training operating personnel and methods analysts.
7. Allows observer to study all types of jobs and various crews.
8. Is useful as a basis for developing standard data.
A more detailed discussion of micromotion study may bt- found in the
many excellent texts mentioned in the bibliography.
To date there have been many ideas and principles developed for
motion study. These principles or rules are good for checking a person's
work to insure adequate coverage of the possibilities of work simplifica-
tion. An open mind and plenty of common sense are essential in doing
motion study work.
Once the method of doing the work has been determined by motion
study, it is often desirable to find out liow much time is used to do the
work. Many industries have adopted some sort of a time study system
to record the time on a job. The name time study imphes that some sort
of a time-measuring device must be used. In most cases it is a stopwatch.
This particular area is more familiar to the employee because he is able
to observe at least the physical aspects of a time study man with his
stopwatch and board.
Before taking a time study, it is necessary to understand just what a
time study attempts to do.
A time study attempts to find out the amount of work that a
cjualified operator, properly trained, can do in a given time. The
operator must do the work according to a certain method, under
certain conditions, and at a certain pace which will produce a
certain physical reaction. Certain allowances for personal and
other delays are provided.
In this explanation, "certain" is used several times. It is the problem
of each individual plant to determine the exact specifications for the
"certain" method, "certain" conditions, "certain" pace, "certain" physi-
cal reaction, and "certain" allowances. Just how the specifications are
determined — unilaterally by management or bilaterally by management
and the employees or union — is decided in each case by the person or
persons involved. But it must be remembered that the employees' ac-
ceptance of the final answer — the production-standard-time to be al-
lowed — is one of the criteria for the success of time study.
All phases — job method, working conditions, pace, and allowances
— must be carefully considered if the time study is to be rational. It is
unreasonable to expect a production worker to accept and meet or exceed
a production standard that is not based on these phases. It is with this
idea in mind that the following suggested steps in time study, with the
rationale expressed in each case, are considered. This is necessary because
only a scientific procedure is attempted ; some parts of taking a time
study are an art.
APPROACHING THE EMPLOYEE AND JOB TO BE TIME-STUDIED
From the technical aspect, this first step of the time study series is
not too important. However, from the psychological point of view, it
is perhaps the one which determines whether the idea of time study is
accepted or rejected. In most cases, the employee's first contact with
time study comes when he sees the time study man with his board and
Much has been written about approaching an employee and getting
his cooperation in any endeavor. In this case, the time study engineer
should consider all the ideas expressed by others and, after careful
thought, use the ones most applicable to the situation. Assuming that the
other phases outlined in the following pages are adequately covered, the
approach to the employee when properly handled does much toward
securing a good and sound time study with the facilities available today.
The time study engineer should approach the employee with the idea
of seeking cooperation and should make him feel at ease. But this cannot
be done with a "mightier-than-thou" attitude. The engineer should give
the employee an idea of what the study is all about. And he should
welcome the employee's thoughts and ideas.
Before the engineer takes any actual time values, he should establish
that the job is properly set up and that the method used is the one to
be used until changes are made. In other words, the job should be reason-
ably standardized, and the cjualificd operator properly trained in the
work method should be selected.
DETERMINING THE JOB CONTENT
The determination of job content involves recording the method of
doing the job exactly as it is done when the time study is taken. This
should be done in such detail that the work can be reproduced at any
time in the future. Details include recording —
1. The general information about the job.
2. The workplace description.
3. The conditions and environment surrounding the workplace.
4. The method used by the operator.
The record obtained is of the utmost importance for the administra-
tion of a sound time study system because it provides information for ■ —
1. Determining the magnitude of job changes as they occur.
2. Training other operators in the standard method to enable them
to meet the standard time.
3. Developing standard time data.
The importance of making the proper record of the time study is
further emphasized when the consequences of an incomplete description
are considered. An incomplete time study record can cause the standard
times to become useless because the operators cannot be trained to meet
them. Without proper records inaccuracies develop in the standard time
TIME STUDY SHEET
operation Drill ^/if>" pin holg
Operation No Lo
Pa rts S<-atj pin
Dept. Mac'^ing Shop 5^,^ 1^0^ J
.Oper. No. 3^ Draw. r^ mo-o-Z T
.Part No's -0-2T.
.Mach. Nq 357
Study hy P S- Jone«
. Specif. Ng'o^o
Tote fat\ of . .
-Drill fires* . .
pf . u«ifM«W
Scole- eoch squor* obout 4"
1. Li^htinq qood- fairlij cl«an room
2. Moderate nois? lavvl
3. Comfortoblff saot -operator can etond
4 Supplij boxeA poorlij supported - on
uiooden crateo \8" hi^h
5. Material 5upplie<:l to and talr«n from
6. MacViine operated at I200 rpm uatng
high *fted dn'U
Open clamp, release^ ^<adp piece
Atfide finished piece, release
and ^eaeh for c^uick clamp
ort jiq, and ^ratft and clamp
Clan^p piece in ^19 and Wold
Raise drill to clear 5toclo
Ka\s« drill to re«i- po4ition ,
Reacti for next piece, qraap and
Cdrri^ -to ^aiek ciatnp Jig
Position piece to jig, release
ReacV) for drill presj handle,
qrasp and louier drill to atock.
Drill 3/ife" pin hale ( hand feed^
Allowed time In per piece.
Method description (front of form)
because of changes in method, equipment, workplace, and surroundings
which cannot be checked. Perhaps the most chaotic result is the gradual
development of undesirable attitudes on the part of the people on the
job. They begin to associate standard times with production quotas
rather than as measurements of the physical work required. This feeling
leads to a resistance to change, even though the suggested method re-
quires no increase in physical effort.
Before considering the methods description complete, two important
questions should be asked:
1. Can the job be reproduced from the methods description?
2. Does the description include everything the worker has to do?
To show how a time study builds up to completion, the same job will
be used as an illustration in all cases. Each step will be discussed and
shown on the time study form in turn. The previous discussion dealt
with determining the job content. Figure VII illustrates this step for a
simple drill press job.
DETERMINING THE ELEMENTS OF THE JOB
Time values of a job can be secured in a number of different ways.
Perhaps the two extremes would be ( 1 ) to secure the over-all time to do
the whole job and divide this time by the number of pieces or pounds
produced to get a unit measure and (2) to determine the time for each
motion and a total of all the motion times for one unit produced to give
a unit measure. Between these two extremes are any number of possi-
bilities, and it is usually one of these other methods that is used. In other
words, the job is broken down into parts and the parts are timed. The
parts are known as elernejits.
There are no fixed regulations as to how a job should be broken down
into elements, but there are a few guides which can be used. The rest
has to be built up through experience. The guides are —
1. Contents of each element should be as homogeneous as possible.
This means that a unit of work such as "insert a screw" should be in one
element, but other units of work in the same job should be in other
2. Hand and machine times should be placed in different elements.
Hand time is under the operator's control and is subject to rating or
leveling. Machine time, under automatic feed, is a definite value de-
pending upon the physical characteristics of the part being made and
equipment used. This can be determined without actual time study.
3. Each element should be either a relatively constant time value
element or a variable time value element. The same element of work in
one job will appear in many other jobs — especially in similar work.
However, in some cases because of the physical characteristic of the
part being made (such as size), the time value for the same element will
be different from job to job. This is known as a variable element. In
other cases, the varying work factors such as size, weight, shape, and
difficulty of handling will not affect the time for the same element from
job to job. If this is the case, the clement will be classified as a constant
element. The value of having an element variable or constant is much
more apparent when standard data, or standard time values, are being
4. Each element should, insofar as possible, have a definite start and
end point. In order to secure comparable time values for the same
element, the start and end points should be fairly definite so the watch
can be read at the right time each time the element occurs.
One may find that the time recording means may not permit breaking
a job into certain elements. For example, it is not advisable to use an
ordinary stopwatch for elements less than 0.04 minutes. If the element
is shorter, a different timing device, such as a movie camera, should be
used ; or else two or more elements should be combined into one.
To illustrate, Figure Villa shows the simple drill press job with
th(^ HK^thod of doing the job broken down into elements for a stopwatch
time study. The end point of each element — the point at which the stop-
watch is read — is underscored. (The end point of one element is the
starting point for the next element.) In the particular case illustrated,
the right hand is the controlling one for each element, but this is not
always the case.
Figure Vlllb shows the element end points, or the points at which
the watch is read, on the time recording side (back of form) of the time
Occasionally some elements may not appear every time a piece or
part is made. These elements are described as if they were regular ele-
ments, but time values will appear only at irregular intervals. A note
usually accompanies the description of these irregular elements to sug-
gest how often they occur, so that proportional amounts of time can
be allowed for them on each piece or pound produced. (Figure I.X
illustrates the irregular element as well as other features.)
RECORDING THE ACTUAL TIME VALUES
In recording the actual time values, two (juestions need to be
1. What method of reading a stopwatch is going to be used?
2. When have an adequate number of stojjwatch readings hctn
TIME STUDY SHEET
. Mach, No.
_ Fixt. No
Open damp, release^ <j rasp piece
Raise drill tocleor stoct
Aside fimished piece, reieose
Raise drill to rest posi+ion,
and reach -for q,uick clamp
on jig, and c^rosp and cSamp
Reach for next piece, grasp and
carrq to q,uict. clamp jiq
Clomp piece in jig and H«ld
Position piece to jig, release
Reach for drill pr«ss Kindle,
£^raap and louter drill ta 5taclc>
Drill 3/,^" pin Woltf ChtnJ feed)
2-Form 5o .
Mowed time In per piece
Element description (front of form)
Page ^ of 2
End Point of Elements
Totol of "t"
No. of observations
Element description (back of form)
End Point of Elements |
Start gtudy lOtOI
Fnrt study \OtOS
1 ■ ■ 1 I
. 1. First reading -end of
' 2. Second reading - end
of element two
'3. Third reading -end
nf olpm«>n-f three.
^_ 4. Fourth reading -end
of element one for
the second piece of
work bi»inn timed.
1 t 1 1 1 1
.0«>^^\<e-^ .A 1
1 1 '
/?- c/ri7/ binding 2
B- fuml.l» 29^
C - blotu noitr ' — 3.29 *"'
Total of "t"
No. of observations
LCP-5* Form 5b
Continuous method of stopwatch reading and
Pog* ^of 2
End Point ot Elements |
Start study lo:oi
Fnd study IO:oS
A. Reading and also time
tor element one.
^2. Reading and also time
for element two.
-5. Reading and also time
for element three.
4. etc. 1
,,..., 1 1
. <e^>^>^^6^" ]
.o\;,. V*^>^^ J
* -'^>^^:'cc»':.^^"<^^!: .
fl- drill bindiHj
hlotu naia 3o
■ missal reading
Totol of "t"
No. of observations
Snapback method of stopwatch reading and
With rrspect to the method of stopwateh reading, it can be said that
the accuracy and reliabiHty of the particular niethod depends entirely
on the person handling the watch. In spite of the many pro and con
arguments on the merits of continuous and snapback (known also as
repetitive) fundamental methods of stopwatch reading, there is as yet
insufficient proof that one system is better than the other. The selection
of a method depends upon the time study department's preference and
the acceptance of the selected method by the working force.
The description of the two methods outlined below, with illustrations,
should provide sufficient inlormation as to how each method of reading
and recording operates.
Continuous Stopwatch Reading and Recording. The stopwatch is
started at the beginning of the first element of the job description and
runs continuously until the study is completed. At the end of each ele-
ment, in turn, the particular reading of the watch is recorded for the
corresponding element. In Figure IX under R in column one, line one,
the watch read 0.06 minutes at the end of the first element. The watch
continued to run, and in the same column on line two, it read 0.11
minutes at the end of element two. The reading at the end of the third
element was 0.31 minutes. The watch continued to run so that at the
end of the first element of the second piece of work, the watch read 0.37
minutes. The decimal point is not shown in the recording since all values
are in hundredths of a minute. A decimal minute watch, the most popu-
lar, was used.
The time for each element is secured by subtracting successive read-
ings. For example, element one for the first piece was 0.06 minutes, since
the watch started at zero and read 0.06 minutes at the end of the first
element. For the second element of the same piece, the time was 0.05
minutes. This was secured by subtracting the watch reading at the end
of element one (0.06 minutes) from the reading at the end of element
two (0.11 minutes) . All these "subtracted times," the time for the element
in each case, appear in the T part of the vertical column.
Snapback or Repetitive Stopwatch Reading and Recording. The
stopwatch is started at the beginning of each element. At the end of
each element, the watch is read and the hand is snapped back to zero.
It starts again for the next element. Because in all cases the time values
are for just the particular element being timed, the values can be re-
corded directly in the T part of the vertical column. See Figure X for
a recording of time values by the snapback method of stopwatch reading
and recording. (As a inatter of interest, compare the respective T parts of
the vertical columns of Figures IX and X. They should be the same if
the readings are accurate.)
The second consideration when securing the actual time values in-
\ olved in doing a job is to determine when an adequate number of values
has been secured. In other words, how many time values must one secure
to have a reasonable and sound sample to represent the job? There are
two extreme possibilities here : ( 1 ) take a complete time study of the
whole job from the first piece or pound to the last piece or pound (as-
suming a sizable number of pieces), or (2) take enough readings of time
values until it is felt that a reasonable sample has been secured. The first
method is much too costly and the answer comes too late for use. It
would mean issuing a production-standard-time-allowed after the job
The second method is most widely used, but the rationale of enough
readings is left entirely up to the time study man. There is a way to over-
come this disadvantage of the "feeling" of enough readings. By using
statistics, actual limitations can be set. But for those who wish to make
a reasonably rough check graphically, a simple means is available: Plot
a frequency chart. To use a specific situation, consider the data from
Figure X for element one. The time values are shown in Table I.
Time Values for Element One
PIECE TIME PIECE TIME
1 6 6 6
2 6 7 7
3 5 8 5
4 8 9 7
5 6 10 7
Now two scales can be laid out at right angles to each othi-r on a
sheet of cross-section paper. See Figure XI. The horizontal scales show
the different time values secured in element one from the lowest to
the highest. The vertical scale shows the number of times each time value
appears in the element. Note that the distribution is bell-shaped around
a time value which appears more frequently than others. There must
be enough time values to give this bell-shaped distribution before a
rational sample of the job has been secured. This procedure must be re-
peated for each element to insure that all have the bell-shaped distribu-
tion of time values. When each element meets this test, a reasonable
sample of the operator's time to do the job has been determined. If the
distribution skews appreciably to the right or left, the time values should
Frequency distribution of time values for element one
DETERMINING THE AVERAGE TIME TO DO THE JOB BY A CERTAIN OPERATOR
The previous step assumed that all time values secured during the
time study were proper. But questions always come up as to the validity
of certain so-called "abnormal" time values — those which are too high
or too low. This question has to be settled on a rational basis. To hide
behind the idea that a time is abnormal is not enough. A sound, work-
able policy that can be understood by anyone is necessary. To avoid the
misuse of the idea of abnormal time values, consideration of this policy
All time values for an element are to be included in deter-
mining the average time for an operator studied, unless a specific
note is made in each case of a discarded time value that the job
method was not followed.
This means that if all the work called for in the element of the
job is not done, the time value (which probably will be low) will
be discarded. If the operator unnecessarily does more work than
the elrmcnt of the job calls for, the time value (which probably
will be too high) also will be discarded.
Figure XII shows the calculations of the average time for each
element for the operator studied. These values are secured by adding
End Point of Elements
' 1 '.
, 1 ne reason tor « oDservations is
" / that one time value was discarded i
/ because of variations In method
/ and one time value was missed
/ TT r\w "V
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Totol of "T"
No of observotions
Average time for job by a certain operator
the time values for each element in turn and dividing the total by the
number of time values considered in each case. For example, element one
time values total 0.63 minutes. Ten time values make up this total. Di-
viding the total (0.63 minutes) by ten gives an average time of 0.06
minutes for element one. Note that this average time is for the specific
DETERMINING THE BASE TIME FOR THE JOB BY RATING OR LEVELING
So far, the average time value secured for each element of the job
was that displayed by a certain operator. But it must be remembered that
in any field of human endeavor — whether it is housework, farming, or
industrial work — observation will show that people differ in manner
and speed at which they accomplish a task. The situation is not any
different in time study work. It is reasonable to expect that no two
persons will perform a given task at exactly the same speed, although
this may happen occasionally. Yet, when a standard time is set for a job,
the time study engineer is saying that a certain worker, following a
certain method, working at a certain speed, and under certain conditions,
should be able to do the job properly in at least the standard time.
The problem confronting the observer is how to watch different
people doing work at different speeds and how to compare them to some
person who is working at a certain speed already determined for a certain
existing area, industiy, or plant. The process of comparing a worker's
rate of performance with the performance expected of a person working
at the selected speed for the area, industry, or plant is called rating or
The rating process is a systematic attempt to relate the observed
performance to the performance expected from a certain type of indi-
vidual who has certain skill qualifications, who follows a certain method,
and who works under certain conditions and at a certain pace.
Although many methods of rating have been devised, none has yet
been able to remove the factor of human judgment satisfactorily. In the
future a better practice may be found. At the present time, rating based
on sound judgment developed through extensive training is the best pro-
cedure to follow. Achieving satisfactory rating also means achieving
equity for all employees affected by the time study program. If rating
equity is not realized, a very unfavorable situation of unbalanced costs
and employee dissatisfaction may develop.
Achieving equity of rating involves consideration of several rules :
1 . All raters must practice fairness.
2. All raters in any one plant must use the same basic reference.
3. All raters must be consistent and accurate in their judgment.
4. Rating must be concrete and based on some observable, demon-
5. It is desirable that both management and labor understand and
agree to the basis of rating.
6. Rating judgment must involve the determination of the effect of
the operator's skill, aptitude, and degree of exertion on his performance
compared to the definition of standard performance. Consideration of
these factors shows that —
a. Skill determines how rapidly a job can be done by a certain
method. Hence, skill is reflected in pace.
b. Aptitude under a given method determines what speed of pace
can be maintained. Hence, aptitude is reflected in pace.
c. Exertion is a function of job difficulty and pace. Hence, exertion,
which is the physical effort of work, is reflected in pace.
Therefore, it is suggested that the observer rate only pace or rate of
activity. Selecting some physical representation of standard performance
is an extremely important step which can influence the success of the
rating program. The selection can be successful if a typical job is care-
fully chosen for the particular situation considered — provided that the
pace for the typical job is agreeable to both management and labor.
Selecting a typical job satisfies the need for a basic reference that is con-
crete, observable, and demonstrable. Proper training of the raters can
meet the need for consistency and accuracy. This usually can be done
effectively by using a motion picture film loop of typical jobs for rating
With the "certain" pace represented as 100 (some use 60), the pace
displayed by the operator time-studied is determined and shown on the
time study sheet. Figure XHI shows the calculations for the base time
(minimum acceptable) for C|ualified operators working under the con-
ditions listed in the above definition. In element one the rating was 110
per cent. Hence, the average time multiplied by rating gives the base time.
DETERMINING AND APPLYING ALLOWANCES
Regardless of the occupation, certain interruptions will occur during
a regular working day. No operator can be reasonably expected to work
a full shift without some stoppages that are beyond his control. Inter-
ruptions vary from those of very short duration, which are diflficult to
measure, to those of moderate or long duration, which arc fairly easy
to measure. Delays which are caused by the nature of the work situation
End Point of Elements
Totol of "T"
No. of observations
Using rating to secure base time
should not be permitted to act as a penalty upon the operator. Stoppages
which are long enough to be recorded on a time card do not present a
measurement problem because the time card is the measurement device
in this case. However, a definite policy should establish which type and
duration of delays are to be covered in the delay allowances in time study
and which are to be covered by the time card.
Minor, varied delays of short duration present an extremely difficult
measurement problem. They are often difficult to detect or determine
properly without exhaustive study, and consequently they are overlooked
in many cases. This should not be. A properly administered, workable
time study system is based upon fair play. Proper allowances for delays —
no matter how minor — are essential if fairness to all is to be achieved.
These allowances can be determined only by careful, extensive studies
taken on the job under regular working conditions. No attempt should be
made to apply standard reference tables which may not fit the situation.
Although delay studies may not be absolutely accurate, they are valu-
able if carefully and conscientiously taken. Allowances for personal needs,
such as food, drink, and toilet, and rest allowances can be determined by
study and agreement between management and labor.
All studies made to determine the amount of delay that can be ex-
pected in various types of work have a definite relationship to the pro-
duction time. Basically, the acceptable total work day is composed of net
production time and acceptable delay times.
Because at this point the base time or net production time is known
(see Figure XIII), it would be convenient to apply the delays to be
allowed as a percentage of the base time after the various delay per-
centages are known. The per cent allowance for delay for each class of
delay can be computed from the studies made for the delay times ex-
pected. The formula is —
Per cent allowance for delav = — : , ' . -: X 100;
net production time '
Production-standard-time-allowed = base time X ( 1 .00 + per cent
allowance for delay).
The application of the total allowance per cent figure for the sum of
the various allowances to the base time for each element is shown in
Figure XIV. This results in the allowed time for each element of the job.
Now, transferring these final allowed times for each cl(>ment ( from
Figure XIV) to the front of the time study sheet and summing them
result in the production-standard-time-allowc-d. in this case, for one
piece. A completed study which brings together all entries on Figures VII.
VIII, IX, XII, XIII, and XIV is shown in Figures XVa and XVb.
End Point of Elements ]
Total of "t"
No. of observotions
APPLYING THE STANDARD AS DETERMINED BY THE TIME STUDY
The application and administration of the time study program is
perhaps the most vital part of the process. All of the other phases of
the program may be technically correct and practiced with conscientious
diligence. However, they may be unacceptable to the people affected by
the program because the administration fails to instill a feeling of honesty
and fair play, because everyone affected does not understand the program
thoroughly, or because the administration lacks a systematic approach
to the workings of a time study program.
If the trust, respect, and cooperation of the people affected by the
time study program are to be gained and kept, a definite policy for sys-
tematic operation of the time study program and the various activities of
that program must be formed, definitely stated, and widely understood.
The statement of policy is vital to all phases of plant activity and must
include a statement of procedures, aims, and rules by which the organiza-
tion functions under varying or recurring situations.
A statement of policy for a time study program should answer clearly
at least the following:
1. What does standard time represent? Because this is a unit of
measurement it must be defined, and the definition must be generally
known throughout the plant.
2. Who determines standard method? Responsibility for determining
methods must be delegated so that standard times will be used only with
the methods they were designed for and so that there will be a constant
striving for better methods.
3. How will standard titne be determined? Time study, rating, and
allowance procedures should be specified as well as any deviations that
will be allowed in unusual cases. This will establish uniform practice.
Policy for standard time should indicate —
a. Nature of the method record.
b. The manner of timing and possible use of standard data.
c. Basis of rating.
d. Standard allowances.
e. Manner of handling irregular elements.
f. Designation of responsibility for above work and authority for
4. How will the standard method be installed?
a. Standard method in written practice form is supplied to oper-
b. Standard time is supplied to operator.
c. Full value can be obtained by use of improved methods.
d. The practice form can be designed for use by operator, group
leader, foreman, or instructor — the more detailed the form,
the better the control.
TIME STUDY SHEET
Opprntinn Drill ■?.& pin hole
Operation No. Lo_
nppt Machine Snpp ctfa^jy No._1
Opprntnr 'g W SmWh Qper. No. 36 Draw. No iod2 7
Pnrts -Staij pio
.Part No's P-^^
. Mach. No. 3ST
Study by P g. Jontfs
Tote pqn .of .
Prjll. press, .
. ^Totp par of
J. XZ7- U p'^'^* ■ •
Scale- eoch squareq^aat'4*
1. LigViting good - Fairlij clean room
2. Moderate noise Icfcl
3. Connfortable seat-operator can stand
4. 5uppl«j boxes poorlij supported -on
uteoden crates l8"hi9H
5. Material supplied to and Trom
6. MateriAi operated at i2aorpin usinq
high spired drill
Open clamp, r«>leo9e, gra«p piec«
Aside -finiaWed piece, release
jnd reach for c^uict clamp
on jig, and grasp and clamp
Raise drill to c\ean- stock.
Raise drill t<9 rest position,
Reach for ne^ P'*ce, qraap and
carrn to <^uicle clamp jig
Clamp piecff in jig and hold
Poait-jon pi'gce to jig, release
R«ach for drill press handle,
grasp and lomer drill to stock.
Drill ^\Ct»n hole (hamd feed)
Allowed time inJ2lii!Lper_J piece=_ 0.39
Complete study (front of form)
Page 2 of 2
End Point of Elements
Start study lotoi
Fnd study lO : OS
1 II 1
1 V\\o^ .
H ' '
A -drill binding Z - m.jied rffadina
B- fumble ,qa „ -"
c- bio<« nose ^11% 30 Summary
Totol of "T"
No. of observations
Complete study (bock of form)
5. liliat are the conditions for change of standard time or method?
a. Properly set standards are guaranteed against revision except
in specified cases, whereas poorly set standards require constant
revision and lead to industrial chaos.
b. Only a change in job method, working conditions, or job ma-
terials above a certain per cent of the total standard justifies a
change in the standard.
This Bulletin has attempted to explain the various methods, uses, and
ways of applying motion and time study. No attempt has been made to
guide various groups into acceptance or rejection of this technique. Most
managements decide whether or not they should use it after consideration
of costs, possible economic benefits, and the effect on industrial relations.
In some cases, employee groups have completely rejected any appli-
cation of motion and time study especially when it is used as a basis
for an incentive wage system. Others have accepted the idea reluctantly
at management's repeated insistence. On the other hand, many find the
idea very attractive and accept it readily. Usually acceptance or rejection
depends upon such things as tradition, experience, feelings of the mem-
bers and officers, the group's strength as a bargaining unit, the type of
plan being offered, its benefits, and relations with management. Whatever
the reasons, if acceptance is decided upon, there are various ways of
dealing with the situation.
Some employee groups refrain from any comment until after the
methods and rates have been established, taking action on disagreement
through the grievance procedure. Others have obtained the right to re-
view before installations and also to use the action of the grievance pro-
cedure. The reviewing action may be taken by individuals selected in
various sections of the shop, a committee, or both, depending on the
situation. Active participation in some or all phases of method and rate
determination is another procedure that many groups have accepted.
This technique may vary from the use of observers who merely check and
suggest to trained personnel who make motion and time studies in co-
operation with company engineers.
The preceding discussion was intended to give an idea of some of the
various approaches to the application of motion and time study. It was
not intended to be a recommendation to anyone. The technique adopted
depends entirely upon the complexity of the labor-management relation-
ship that exists in each individual situation.
BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS
Abruzzi, A. Work Measurement, Columbia University Press, \ew York, 1952,
Adams, S., and Weston, H. C. On the Relief of Eyestrain Amongst Persons Per-
forming Very Fine Work. Industrial Fatigue Research Board, Report No. 49,
Barnes, R. M. Motion and Time Study, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York,
3rd Edition, 1949, 559 pages.
Bills, .\. G. The Psychology of Efficiency, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1943.
Brooke, R. St. C, and Farmer, E. Motion Study in Metal Polishing, Industrial
Fatigue Research Board, Report No. 15, 1921, pp. 1-65.
Carroll, Phil., Jr. Timestudy Fundamentals for Foremen, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1951, 225 pages.
Carroll, Phil., Jr. How to Chart Timestudy Data, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
New York, 1950, 323 pages.
Carroll, Phil., Jr. Time Study for Cost Control, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
New York, 1944, 172 pages.
Chane, G. W. Motion and Time Study, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1942,
Committee on Work in Industry, National Research Council. Fatigue of Workers:
Its Relation to Industrial Production, New York, 1941.
Gillespie, J. J. Dynamic Motion and Time Study, Chemical Publishing Company,
Brooklyn, 1951, 140 pages.
Gomberg, W. A Trade Union Analysis of Time Study, Science Research Associ-
ates, Chicago, 1948, 243 pages.
Hendry, J. W. A Manual of Time and Motion Study, Pitman and Sons, Ltd.,
London (Pitman Publishing Corp., New York), 1944, 215 pages.
Holmes, W. G. Applied Time and Motion Study, Ronald Press, Inc., New York,
Lowry, S. M., Maynard, H. B., and Stegemerten, G. J. Time and Motion Study,
McGraw-HillBook Company, New York, 3rd Edition, 1940, 532 pages.
Mathewson, S. B. Restriction of Output Among Unorganized Workers, \'iking
Press, Inc., New York, 1931.
Maynard, H. B., and Stegemerten, G. J. Methods-Time Measurement, McGraw-
Hill Book Company, New York, 1944, 85 pages.
Maynard, H. B., Stegemerten, G. J., and Schwab, J. L. Methods-Time Measure-
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Maynard, H. B., and Stegemerten, G. J. Operation Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1939, 298 pages.
Morrow, R. L. Time Study and Motion Economy, Ronald Press, Inc., New York,
1946, 338 pages.
Mundel, M. E. Motion and Time Study, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1950,
Myers, H. J. Simplified Time Study, Ronald Press Company, New York, 1944,
Presgrove, R. Dynamics of Time Study. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,
2nd Edition, 1945, 238 pages.
Ryan, T. A. Work and Effort, Ronald Press Company, New York, 1947, 323
Sampter, H. C. Motion Study, Pitman Publishing Company, New York, 1941,
Schutt, W. H. Time Study Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,
1943, 426 pages.
Shumard, F. W. Primer of Time Study, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,
1940, 519 pages.
Sylvester, L. .\. The Handbook of Advanced Time-Motion Study, Funk &
Wagnalls Company, New York, 1950, 273 pages.
Uhrbrock, R. S. A Psychologist Looks at Wage Incentive Methods, American
Management Association, Institute of Management Series, No. 15, 1935.
United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America.
U .A.W .-C.I.O. Looks at Time Study, International Union, Detroit, 1947,
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America. U. E. Guide to Wage
Payment, Time Study and Job Evaluation, The Union, New York, 1943,
\'aughan, L. M., and Hardin, L. S. Farm Work Simplification, John Wiley and
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Adams, S., and Weston, H. C. "Observations on the Design of Cotton Machinery
in Relation to the Operator," Journal of National Institute of Industrial
Psychology, April, 1930, pp. 97-107.
Alford, L. P. "Looms per Weaver: Data from the Recent Silk and Rayon Work
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"Applying Motion Study Principles: R. C. A. Manufacturing Company,'" Factory
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Barkin, S. "Labor Views the Working Day," Advanced Management, 1942,
Basset, W. R. "Modern Production Methods: Pt. XXVI — Time Study on
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Bernard, V. "Time Studies in Foundry Work," Foundry Trade Journal. August
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1941, pp. 85, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164.
Bitterman, M. E. "Fatigue Defined as Reduced Efficiency," American Journal of
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Brecht, R. P. "Motion Study in the Office," Society for the Advancement of
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Campbell, J. F. "The Problem of Allowances in Time Studies as Viewed by the
Industrial Engineer," Taylor Society Bulletin and Society of Industrial Engi-
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Carr, C. B. "Setting Time Standards When Machine Times Vary," Factory,
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Carroll, Phil., Jr. "Exposing Some Fallacies of Time Study Technique," Proceed-
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Carroll, Phil., Jr. "Time Studies from Standard Data," Society for the Advance-
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Dickey, R. C. "Time Sheets of Definite \'alue in Wood-Working Plants," Wood
Worker, February, 1941, pp. 24-26.
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Gore, J. O. "Time Studies of Drivers," National Cleaner and Dyer, October,
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Machinery, May, 1928, pp. 702-703.
Lathrop, P. J. "Making Hand Labor Effective," Modern Packaging, July, 1941,
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Lee, P. H. "Time Study Related to Bulk and Line Pioduction," Mechanical
Handling, July, 1941^ pp. 130-131.
Marshall, G. P. "Reducing Cleaning Costs in the Shop," Mill and Factory,
October, 1936, p. 57.
Matthews, P. M., and Brechin, C. H. "Incenti\es Cut Painting Costs," Factory
Management and Maintenance, June, 1941, pp. 94-95.
Mogensen, .'\. H. "Motion Study: Why Has the Machine Designer Ignored It?"
Mechanical Engineering, December, 1933, pp. 727-731.
Mundel, M. E. "Motion Study Aids Materials Handling," Mill and Factory,
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Xuttall, J. H. "Time Studies of Refuse Ck)lkction Activities," American City.
August, 1929, pp. 112-116.
Pollack, K. W. "The Use of Therblig. Times for Rate Setting," Society for the
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Rittcnhouse, J. F., Jr. "Motion Study for Foremen and Shop Stewards," Factory
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Rvan, T. A. "Varieties of Fatigue," American Journal of Psychology, 1944, pp.
Saute, .■\. J. "Ladles and Pouring Efficiency," Foundry. September, 1933, pp.
Saxton, D. W. "Inspectors on Piece Rates Up Quality, Output, and Earnings,'"
Factory, February, 1940, pp. 50-51.
Stegemerten, G. J. "Gage and Inspect — 1. Before Motion Study," Factory,
February, 1936, pp. 66-67; "2. After Motion Study,'" Factory, March, 1936,
Tidball, L. D. "Time and Motion Study for Job Order Shops,'" Rubber Age,
May, 1936, pp. 88-91.
Single copies of these Institute Bulletins are available at ten cents per copy.
WORKERS ON THE MOVE
UNIONS, MANAGEMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
RECENT TRENDS IN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE LEGISLATION
TRENDS AND PROBLEMS IN UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE
ASSIGNMENT AND GARNISHMENT OF WAGES IN ILLINOIS
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LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS IN ILLINI CITY, VOL. 1 THE CASE STUDIES, by \V . ElHson
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LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS IN ILLINI CITY, VOL. 2 EXPLORATIONS IN COMPARATIVE
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